Socialism in Nepalese Perspective
National Seminar organized by Martyrs'
Memorial Foundation (MMF)
29-30 April 2012
Ritu Raj Subedi, an Associate Editor
The Rising Nepal, A National English daily
Democratic socialism has, in recent years,
regained its strength as the market-led global capitalism is facing
crises one after another. The severe financial recession in the
US prompted the Obama administration to pump in billion of dollars
to rescue many banks that were to collapse. This reaffirmed the
Keynesian principle that the government must intervene with the
market that is by itself not self-sustaining and self-functioning.
The mixed model of economy that economist Keynes prescribed to
fight the 1929 Great Depression is the middle path that the followers
of democratic socialism have adopted to achieve their goals. The
social democrats are making comeback in Europe. Voters are reacting
to the EU's austerity measures imposed by neo-liberal governments.
The victory of a socialist president in France and the rise of
the Left parties in Greek is a testimony to this fact.The social
democrats seem to be returning to power in Germany too as the
ruling Christian Democratic Party suffered a humiliating defeat
in one of the most populous provinces' election recently. The
EU's austerity measures continue to receive backlash as it led
to the massive job lay-off and cut in the social security findings.
Democratic socialism recognizes both the efficiency
and competition of market, and fairness that the government
promises to its people. The fairness includes levying tax, awarding
contracts, enforcing rule of law and the distribution of national
income, according to economist Jeffrey Sachs. It attaches greater
priority to social security schemes for the welfare of the citizens.
It does not leave the unemployed, the poor, the homeless and
the old people high and dry as found in capitalism.
Despite its abject poverty, Nepal demonstrates
unique position favorable for the execution of the ideas of
democratic socialism. More that 62 per cent lawmakers in the
legislature parliament are from moderate and hardliner communist
parties. Non-communist force like Nepali Congress, in principle,
also stands for democratic socialism. The anti-socialist and
rightist forces are not strong enough to push the supporters
of democratic socialism to the corner. While the political infrastructure
offers ample room for the embracement of democratic socialism,
the interim constitution also accepted its basics tenets such
as social justice and security. The would-be statute to be promulgated
by the Constituent Assembly is expected to further consolidate
the principles of democratic socialism.
Against this background, Martyrs' Memorial
Foundation (MMF) and Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung (FES) jointly
organized a two-day seminar 'Democratic Socialism in Nepalese
Perspective' in Kathmandu with a view to explore the common
ground for the realization of democratic socialism in Nepal.
Political leaders representing different political parties and
civil society members concurred that democratic socialism could
be a suitable political system in Nepal to institutionalise
the political achievements. Nepalese experiences with various
democratic revolutions, their cultural diversity and the lesson
from global financial crisis provided with an opportunity to
cautiously experiment democratic socialism here.
MMF chairman and NC senior leader and socialist
thinker Dhundi Raj Sashri called for adopting the socialistic
economy system and governance system having check and balance.
Shashri said that the parliamentary system in the past failed
to live up to the people's expectations as it concentrated the
provisions of 'opportunity' and 'control' at one place, namely,
in the lower house. Dwelling on the form of governance, he said
that the presidential system would be applicable to a country
where its people are educated and prosperous. "The presidential
system gives a birth to a dictatorship in a poor country like
ours," he claimed. He said that federalism was for ensuring
the political and economic rights but if the provinces were
carved out on the basis of ethnicity and they were granted right
to self-determination, this would create ground for their secession.
He suggested for federating the country into three provinces
- East Province, Mid-province and Western Province- from north
to south. He stressed that the hilly and Terai districts should
be included in the would-be-provinces.
Democratic Socialism road to prosperity
Nepali Congress former general secretary Bimalendra
Nidhi said that democratic socialism was the present and
future of Nepal. "It is a road to prosperity." He
noted that democratic socialism was essential to guarantee social
and economic justice in the Nepalese society. He said that it
was often stressed that the government should be accountable
to the taxpayers but in fact it should be accountable to the
all people, who should be elevated to level of taxpayers so
as to bring about prosperity. He said that the country witnessed
big transformation in the last five years with the introduction
of republican set-up, federalism, secularism, inclusive constitution
and mixed electoral system. In another context, Nidhi said that
all parties should realize the nature and reality of the country
while adopting the modality of state restructuring. He said,
"Without pluralism, social democracy cannot be institutionalized."
He said that the NC and UML had adopted the fundamental principle
of democracy and stressed the need of transforming the UCPN-Maoist
into a democratic force.
CPN-UML politburo member Mukunda Neupane,
who is also workers' union leader, said that Karl Marx, father
of communism, attached topmost priority to freedom of an individual,
fair distribution of national income through social organizations
and the role of cooperatives to reduce poverty." Theory
should serve people, not the vice-versa. It should be pragmatic,"
added Neupane. He said that major political parties, UCPN-Maoist,
NC and UML, suffered from dogmatic attitudes and backward mindsets
that have posed hurdles to the realization of democratic socialism.
Taking further swipe on them, Neupane said that these parties
become united when it came to obtain facilities and privileges
from the state but they differ while giving rights to the people.
Stating state restructuring as the agenda of the country and
people, Neupane said that the parties should give up their partisan
interests to resolve disputed matters of state restructuring.
Dahal calls for active citizenship
FES Nepal head Dr. Dev Raj Dahal put emphasis
on active citizenship for making the political leadership accountable
to the people. "Active citizenship gets people engaged
in the formulation of policies and programmes as well as their
Dahal said that sustainable peace was possible
only with social democracy. "Freedom, social justice, solidarity
and peace form the basis of social democracy."
He noted that social justice, the conceptual
and ideological foundation of social democrats, left and progressive
forces, was a means to fulfill essential human needs and to
resolve social conflicts. Dahal noted that the new agenda of
social democrats in Europe and Asia were involved in the reevaluation
of their political policies towards welfare state by making
politics public in orientation, electoral reform, public participation
and decision making, devolution of power, human rights, ecologically
sustainable development, peace and social justice for women
minorities and weaker section of the society.
"They are also seeking reforms in financial
sector, active labour market policy, an alliance of progressive
forces, labour and civil society fosters the harmony of national
regional and global justice enabling social democracy to deliver.
Now the trend is more towards socially and environmentally inclined
social democratic investment state," Dahal added. He further
said that the crisis of global proportion in food, energy, finance
and ecology requires global democratic accountability for its
resolution and a sound partnership of the states, markets, civil
society groups and international regimes as well as enhanced
rules and institutions for democracy rooted into he basic values
of social democracy.
MMF general secretary Khila Nath Dahal said
that democratic socialism stressed the integrated development
of the society and enhanced participation of the public.
"It helps establish the social system
in the society and the country should bring in a new policy
to mobilize the youth and women to secure the social rights
of the people," he added. He said that the new Nepal should
a prosperous one that should ensure social security to the weaker
section of the society. He also shed light on the activities
being carried out by the MMF and added it had been generating
awareness about social democracy, labour rights and social security
Discussion Session - I
Young economist Atul Pokharel presented
his working paper 'Creating Economic Bases for Social Democracy
in Nepal' in the first session chaired by Omkala Gautam. Khem
Raj Regmi, chairman of Nepal Civil Society, commented Pokharel's
'Nexus between money & politics must
Pokharel said that he used the term 'social
democracy' in line with the broad principles of Socialist International.
He defined it as a system aimed at extending individual freedom
and increasing prosperity on the basis of economic and social
security. "Social democracy puts full employment, higher
production, raising standards of life, social security and fair
distribution of incomes and property above the interests of
According to him, public ownership takes the
form of the nationalization of enterprises and cooperatives
and functions as the means of controlling basic industries and
services on which the economic life and welfare of the community
depend. However, social democracy does not presuppose public
ownership of all the means of productions. It is compatible
with the private ownership in important fields, for instance,
in agriculture, handicraft, retail trade and small and middle-sized
"Trade unions and organizations
of producers and consumers are necessary elements in a democratic
society; they should never be allowed to degenerate into the
tools of a central bureaucracy, into a rigid corporative system
or into armies of political parties," he cautions, adding
that the citizens needed to play a role to prevent the creation
of bureaucracy in the public and private industry.
After presenting conceptual framework of social
democracy, Pokharel presents a set of theoretical premises to
lay the economic foundation for the creation of Nepal's Social
Democratic Model (NSDM):
- With the emergence of transnational organizations,
international corporations and global political movements,
nationalism has taken on new meaning. Nepal is becoming transnational.
Today, Nepal is where Nepali people live. This fact must be
taken into account.
- NSDM should follow a middle path: the state
control of some means of production, private ownership of
others and the incorporation of cooperative forms of ownership.
- Since Nepal is surrounded by the two large
economies, it should bridge gaps between the two neighbours,
create space for innovations and take benefits from the opportunities
availed by them.
- The government should work to ensure that
there should be close to 95 per cent employment.
- To commercialize the agriculture and specialize
- The government should enforce democratic
control on the excessive accumulation of wealth at the hands
of a few self-interested people.
Pokharel argued that Nepal possessed historical
bases to usher in social democracy. They are: flexibility and
resilience, global exposure and rich history and culture. According
to him, Nepal gathered enough experiences in the field of political
movements and economic development. Many Nepalese went abroad
and brought with them ideas, capital and exposure, which are
critical to the economic prosperity. "We have a large number
of students abroad in higher education, particularly in medicine,
science and engineering. In the long term, this represents a
tremendous pool of talent to the Nepali community." He
said that cultural diversity, family and community values, and
indigenous and self-knowledge are some other helping assets
for building a Nepali model of social democracy.
However, Pokharel also pointed out to some
inherent shortcomings posing hurdles to the realization of social
democracy. They include low level education, isolated population,
gender disparity, unplanned growth, lack of expertise in the
complex financial instruments and finally the weak democracy.
He suggested giving priority to institutions instead of individuals
and ending the nefarious nexus between money and politics.
Comments on the paper
As a key commenter, Khem Raj Regmi said that
at a time when the feelings of pessimism were rife, the paper
held a positive thinking for the development of the country.
The statement that Nepal is where Nepali people live is very
original approach of Pokharel. He rightly stressed that Nepal
should act as a bridge between the two powerful economies. Regmi,
who is also senior retired bureaucrat, opined that the country
made headway in the health, communication and education sectors
amidst conflict. However, the economic development remained
stagnant with the Maoist insurgency. Stating that cartel and
syndicate in the transportation sector was causing damages to
the economic growth, he pointed out that the government should
come to end such wrong practices and provide security to the
industries. Where the private sector fails to reach out, the
government should step in and invest there, he added.
From the floor
There was increasing number of participants,
who commented Atul's paper. Many of them appreciated it while
some others indicated some missing points in it. Former minister
Gore Bahadur Khapangi said that whether it was appropriate to
overthrow king without seeking reform in the monarchial system.
Kumar Regmi said that Nepal should focus on the development
of hydropower instead of stressing industrial revolution.
One participant objected to the argument of
Pokhrel that the western people frown upon the idea of socialism.
"If so, how a socialist candidate won presidential election
in France?" Similarly, Omkala Gurung, seconding above participant,
said that social democracy came from the West.
Rabindranatha Bhattarai said that the country
could not move ahead if everything was seen from the Western
perspective. He doubted the prospect of social democracy becoming
a common agenda as many politicians had already tested the sweetness
of capitalism while in power and sent their offspring to the
expensive schools and colleges. He called for finding the native
pillars of social democracy and preserving the family values.
Risav Ghimire said that since the contribution
of agriculture in GDP stood around 45 per cent how the other
areas like jal, jamin, jadibuti and jungle could help attain
the rest of the national income.
Discussion session- II
Ethnocentric federalism unfeasible: Dr.
Professor Dr Ramesh Dhungel presented
his working paper, 'Drafting of New Constitution in Nepal: Its
Difficulties and Hurdles' in the second session of the first
day. NC senior leader Bhim Bahadur Tamang chaired the sitting
and political scientist Ananda Aaditya commented the paper.
Dr. Dhungel said that the Maoist movement
was not basically intended with federalism and ethnocentrism
but the situation headed towards ethnic, religious and regional
collision, and the expectations, desires and intention of ethnic
and regional communities were going beyond original thoughts
of the movement. "This has led the movement or politics
itself going beyond the easy control of the political leaders."
He said that ethnocentric views dominated
the political parties and many caucuses were formed in the CA
on the ethnic lines, which was not compatible with the concept
of political parties.
He also accused some INGOs of being active
to destabilize and cause conflicts in Nepal with their money
power and extra efforts.
Dhungel, who was also a member of the dissolved
high level State Restructuring Commission, said that there was
not enough groundwork prior to the announcement of federalism.
He said that political activists and leaders were not well-informed
about the requirement of federalisms and also about its technicalities
Calling for promoting civic nationalism, Dhungel said that ethno-based
federalism could not be feasible in Nepal. Hinting at the various
movements which were underway for the integrated of the given
territory, he said that such agitations had been carried out
owing to ignorance about meaning of federalism.
"It is an anti-federalist posture to
demand that the given provincial geography must remain intact
but to show a height of indifference towards the integrity of
the national territory. This stands against the concept of federalism."
He said that there should be three tiers of
federalism and the issue of identity must be addressed carefully
and seriously in the third tier of federal structure by giving
autonomy to the ethnic groups at the local level, focusing on
their traditions, culture and knowledge.
Comments on the paper
Commenting on it, political scientist Aananda
Aditya said that it was a super nonsense to demand ethnicity-based
federalism. "Until the people get rid of ethnic fanaticism,
it can't be guaranteed that the new statute won't be burnt down
immediately after it is promulgated."
Aditya was highly critical of political parties
and said that the CA would promulgate a kushe sambidhan, which
literally means that it would be lifeless statute. He said that
the leaders must shun the faulty notion that their priority
was the priority was the nation. He said that there should be
the provision of recall in the statute and effective accountability
Stating that democracy is penance and process
of learning, he said that the time had come for all Nepalese
to unite as the egos of the leaders would take the nation nowhere.
He also blasted the communist philosophy and stated that Marxism
was a dangerous myth that sold a dream to the people for the
last 150 years. "Now the time has come to download it from
the people's minds."
From the floor
Krishna Poudel said that the parties should
go to CA elections only after disarming the Maoists. "The
statute would have been ready by now if the parties had agreed
on its basic principles prior to the CA election." He also
criticized some CA members for speaking against the policies
of their respective parties.
Gore Bahadur Khapangi said that those, who
were enjoying the facilities and privileges from the state,
should demonstrate their goodwill and generosity for those who
have been exploited and marginalized for century. "For
this, the state should adopt the policy of positive discriminations."
He further said that federalism was needed
for the evolvement of inclusive system to uplift the ethnic
community that was victimized by the systemic exclusion. Kedar
Sapkota asked Dhungel to shed light on the scenario after the
promulgation of the new statute since the latter claimed that
the statute would be promulgated but could not be implemented.
In his response, Dr Dhungel said that he was
not against federalism but he was insisting on the least possible
number of states without bearing the names of ethnicity. He
said that formations of caucuses beyond the party line was a
sheer anarchy and was against loktantra. He stressed it was
a weakness to introduce federalism without doing necessary homework.
From the chair, Bhim Bahadur Tamang said that
the ethnicity-based federalism was not appropriate and there
was the need of harmony and goodwill among the various castes
Discussion Session III
Democracy for Gender Justice
On the second day of the seminar, Professor
Amuda Shrestha presented her working paper 'Democracy for Gender
Justice' at the session chaired by Norwegian conflict expert
Ms Tone Bleie. Gore Bahadur Khapangi was the key commentator.
Nepal sees superstructure changes: Bleie
In her introductory remarks, Bleie said that
Nepal at the moment is undergoing through intense superstructure
changes with the removal of monarchy and introduction of republican
set-up, federalism and secularism. "Consciousness among
the people is growing at a greater scale. They are now demanding
political and legal reforms. New definitions are being sought
in the man-woman relations and the hierarchy of ethnicity,"
Dwelling on the use of addressing word 'timi'
(you) to spouses by their husbands in the Nepali society, she
expressed her reservation to it as a symbol of gender domination.
She said it was internalized in the minds of the people and
needed to be taken out from their psych. She was of the view
that ex-Maoist combatants should be treated with justice in
the post-conflict society. On the growing break-up cases of
their inter-caste marriages, she suggested that elder woman
should change their way of thinking and accept the social reforms.
Stating that gender justice has been important aspect of democracy
in the Nordic nations, Bleie noted that social democracy stressed
distributive economy and ensured fair participation of women.
Loktantra key to gender justice: Amuda
Highlighting about her paper, Amuda Shrestha
said it is in loktantrik system that gender justice is guaranteed
because only a government run under democratic values could
maintain unity between the state and society, and balance among
various classes, castes and genders. She said that gender justice
is instrumental to do away with the discriminations and injustices
created on the basis of gender biases.
"The term 'gender justice' has come into
use after the words like 'gender mainstreaming' or 'gender equality'
failed to address the gender disparities," she said, adding
that the new wording sought to change the societal attitudes
and cultures, and link people's nature, capacity and rights
with economic and political systems in order to address the
discriminations faced by the women folks. "Gender justice
demands accountability. It enhances women access to resources,
means and mechanisms, finally enabling them with opportunity
to control over them."
Male-Female Disparity Ratio
Disparity between women and men is high mainly
in the field of education and unemployment. In South Asia, the
number of educated male adults stands at around 73.8 per cent
and their women counterpart around 52.1 per cent. There is uneven
participation males and females in the field of lucrative labour
force. The males stand around 82.1 per cent but the number of
women is only a meager 35.7 per cent. According to a global
survey, out of 20 billionaires, there are only two women among
them. Women make up about two thirds of total poor people in
the world. This women's plight resulted from their little access
to education and properties compared to their male counterpart.
They are deprived of equal treatment and equal opportunity.
"Loktantra strives for equality and strongly
upholds a moral value for safeguarding fundamentals equality
of both sexes," she said. Stating that the Interim Constitution
contained several provisions in favour of women rights including
their heath and reproductive ones, Shrestha said that women
participation in the local bodies and national legislature grew
by 20 per cent following the advent of multiparty democracy
in 1990. Currently, the women lawmakers constitute over 32 per
cent in the 601-member historic constituent assembly. In her
concluding statements, Shrestha stood by social democracy citing
that it does not deprive women of education and properties merely
on the ground that they are women. "Its main objective
is to end all types of exploitations, and deliver freedom and
justice to the citizens. Therefore, social democracy is prerequisite
to ensure women's rights, freedom and gender justice."
Commenting her paper, Khapangi said that it was sociological
factor, not the biological one that forced women to lag behind
their male counterpart. He said there were still many discriminatory
laws preventing women from making headway in the different sectors.
No matter what kind of system Nepal adopts, it the men who should
be more responsible to ensure gender justice, he said. "The
males in power must show generosity for equality between man
Khapangi, also a former women minister, suggested
that women minister must be headed by woman, not man as women
knew their problems better that the men. He said that social
democracy was unlikely to be effective in a country that is
being fragmented into several parts. He lamented that the people
forgot the contributions of Prithvi Narayan Shah to the unification
of country. "The more regretting part is that the national
unity day has been scrapped." Khapangi called for utilizing
and respecting indigenous knowledge and traditions instead of
blindly aping foreign learning. "Our political science
starts with the quotation of Thomas Hobbes but we neglect oriental
Comments from the floor
Lalbabu Yadav said that there was not more
than 10 per cent of women represented in the major political
parties. Yadav said that Nepal should emulate Rwanda where slogan
like No Women No Peace worked effectively and recognized the
role of women in the post-conflict reconstruction. He emphasized
the people should focus on citizenship and nationality, not
on ethnicity. "We can regain ideology or democracy if they
are snatched away but we can never recover nationalism once
we lose it," he added.
One woman participant said that it was wrong
to put all blames on males for the plight of women. "It
is the patriarchal mindset and existing social and cultural
values that hold up women's progress." She said that there
was the need for both genders - men and woman- to join their
hands together to end the entrenched discriminations against
Ban use of term Kanyadan
Woman activist Omkala Gautam suggested that
gender friendly provisions must be spelt out in the new constitution
in order remove the various types of gender discriminations.
Stating that women's condition was very depressing and girls
were often harassed and raped in the rural areas, Gautam demanded
that the government provide social security to protect them.
She also pointed out that women had been discriminating against
women. There have been ample cases in which mothers-in-law misbehave
and exploit their own daughters-in-law. She was of the view
that the word 'kanyadan', which consists of two words - kanya
(virgin girl) and dan (donation or offering) and literally means
the donating of daughter to son-in-law, should be declared illegal.
"The government should ban the use of this term as the
word dan stands for quite different meaning in our cultural
context. We do not again accept dan once it is donated to priest,"
she said. "Should we not receive our daughters once they
go to the house of their spouses as a bride?" she questioned.
Discussion Session IV
Modernization & Nepalese Youth
NC youth leader Gagan Thapa presented his
working paper 'Modernity and Nepali Youth' in the final session
of the seminar chaired by another NC youth leader and lawmaker
Mahendra Yadav. Former president of Nepal Teacher Union Keshav
Bhattarai commented the paper.
Nepalese youths in dilemma: Gagan Thapa
Thapa said the English words modern, modernity
and modernization each carried different and multiple definitions
from its Nepali corresponding word 'Aadhunik' (modern).
Modernization simply means a transition from
traditional rural agrarian society to secular and urban one,
he said and added that Westerners assert that industrial revolution
laid the foundation of modernization. There are different meanings
of modernity according to society. For example, its meaning
differs between the people of colonized nations and those whose
nations did not experienced foreign rule. "Generally, modernization
is often taken as synonymous with Westernization. There is a
misleading notion that the more one follows the Western values
and lifestyles, the more s/he is considered to be modern. Modernity
always turns out to be 'revolutionary' and new generation is
naturally inclined towards modern thinking than the old one,"
Almost every historian agrees that Nepal's
modern history begins with the unification of the country by
Prithvi Narayan Shah. However, the nation fell into the rule
of despotic Rana Oligarchy as it was in the process of becoming
a nation state. Despite this, there was development of necessary
and auxiliary legal structures such as Civil Code during the
Rana regime. Historian Bhuvan Lal Prdhan said that Nepal witnessed
renaissance following the democratic revolution of 2007 BS.
This heralded the unprecedented level of enthusiasm to develop
Nepal at par with the advanced nations. "Nepal's journey
for modernization is propelled by the continuous conflict between
the status quo and progressive forces." Quoting Samuel
P. Huntington, Thapa said that political modernization required
the expansion of logical regime, structural diversification
and political participation. "These elements were in place
following the revolution of 2007 BS." The subsequent political
changes further expanded the scope of political modernization.
Pondering over the condition and potential
of the Nepalese youth, Thapa said that every generation adopts
knowledge preserved by the old generations and adapts to its
experiences, thereby transforming it to new generation. The
old knowledge is renewed and modernization keeps going. He said
that there is dispute whether to define youth on the age ground
or on basis of thinking or ideology. Quoting psychoanalyst Eric
H. Erikson, he said that the state of youth is defined by role
confusion and a sense of identity confusion.
"Youths are naturally of rebellious nature.
It is also easy to give political colour and shape to revolt.
The Nepalese youth have been thrown into dilemma between the
problems and potentialities of both traditionalism and modernism."
He noted that the youths have been unable to intervene in legislature
as they had been the part of experiment of the political leaders.
"The Nepalese youths are facing the same problems as faced
by the youths of every Third World."
Call for framing youth policy
Commenting the paper, Bhattarai said that
it encompassed many things in regard with the theoretical aspects
of modernity and the Nepali youths. He said that there was challenge
to mobilize the youths and the government needed to introduce
appropriate youth policy for the management of their capacity.
He further expressed that the Nepalese youths had been switched
to the foreign employment by abandoning the agriculture occupation.
Highlighting the contribution of migrant workers, he said, "Their
remittances served as the lifeblood of the country's economy
but the government is not doing anything for their security.
It is a matter of sad that their problems have not been addressed
at the policy level."
Stating that the youth period is the most
creative and fertile phase of life, he said that Prithvi Narayan
Shah and Alexander the Great had started their campaign of territorial
expansion at the age of 20. On the ongoing political transition,
he called on the leadership to maintain integrity and abide
by the value-based politics.
Comments from the floor
Gore Bahadur Khapangi enquired whether it
was correct to describe the April Uprising as Janaandolan II
since the revolution of 2007 BS was the first organized movement
of the people.
Another participant said that if Thapa had
presented the roadmap of the youth, it would have been far better.
He also said that there should have proper policy to utilize
the experiences of migrant workers after they return home.
Former NC youth leader Yuva Raj Khati said
that three should be an integrated approach to address the problems
of youths "A sense of charity and right must go side by."
He demanded that the state must guarantee the youth's rights
to health, education and job. He expressed his serious concerns
over the increased criminalization of the politics. Stating
that the youths were in utter despairs, the state needed to
able to maximize their potential for the modernization of the
Mahesh Karmocha said that the nation had immense
potentiality in agriculture, tourism, forest, herbal medicines
and hydropower and the investment should be attracted to tap
these areas. On the ongoing debate on the state restructuring
issue, he suggested that proportionate representation of the
people could be an alternative to identity-based federal structure.
One women participant said that there had
been massive brain drain of the youths so the government needed
to devise policy to check their exodus. She also called for
the growth of jobs to keep the youths at home.
In his responses to the queries raised from
the floor, paper presenter Thapa said that modern Nepal is one
that gets rid of poverty of mind and wealth, and sees the end
of all forms of discriminations and exploitations.
"When citizens demand rights with a sense
of duty in their hearts, the state also starts applying the
distributive economic system. The road to prosperity should
be virtuous. We can move toward modernization through loktantrik
system and institutions," he added.
From the chair, lawmaker Yadav said that there
had not been youth policy since 1990. "We have been pressing
the government to formulate the youth policy for many years
but it has not yet given due priority to our call."
He informed that representatives of eight
youth organizations submitted a draft of youth policy to the
government three years ago but it was pending in parliament
and awaiting its approval.
In his concluding remarks, Khila Dahal said
that the women's role was very important in social democracy.
The political changes have been successful when the youths participated
in democratic movements. Stating that it was necessary to introduce
and implement social security schemes, he called for giving
momentum to the cooperative movement in order to tap the country's
immense natural resources. "For this, the political leadership
must be honest."
- Nepal experiences transformative changes
- Nepal possesses historical bases to usher
in democratic socialism
- Social democracy ensures social justice
- Loktantra key to ensure gender justice
- It is wrong to blame males for all sorts
of gender disparities
- Nepal's modernization starts with revolution
of 2007 BS
- Get rid of poverty of mind & money
- Devise proper youth policy to tap their
- Provide security to migrant workers
- Give momentum to cooperative movement
- Political leadership must be honest