Democratic Socialism in Nepalese Perspective
Organised by Martyrs' Memorial Foundation
26-27 May 2011, Kathmandu
Ritu Raj Subedi
The Rising Nepal
Nepal's first democratically elected Prime
Minister and noted thinker BP Koirala developed 'Democratic Socialism'
in 50s with the Nepalese characteristics. He took inspiration
from many western thinkers such as Herald J Laski and others in
propounding and defining this political-cum economic philosophy
in the local context. But, with the collapse of socialist blocks
in early 90s, socialism lost much of its fire in Europe and elsewhere.
Market and liberal values have been dominant in politics and economy
for many decades. However, the recent crisis in the capitalistic
economy that swept through across the globe justified the relevance
of socialism and its continued existence.
Today the term democratic socialism
is popular in certain section of political spectrum. Nepali
Congress that follows liberal and democratic values, still defends
democratic socialism as one of the tenets of the party though
it failed to pursue it vigorously while in power. Nonetheless,
socialism is well accepted phraseology in Nepal because of overwhelming
presence of communist forces. The idea continues to catch the
fancy of the people from different hues - Leftists, centrists
and liberalists. They only differ on the adoption of programmes
and policies to implement the idea. This has been a recurrent
theme in the academic and political debates. Friedrich-Ebert-Stiftung,
a Nepal-based German political foundation, has been promoting
the idea of democratic socialism. As a part of its policy, the
FES sponsored Sahid Smriti Pratisthan (Martyr Memorial Academy)
to host a two-day seminar on 'Democratic Socialism in Nepalese
Perspective' in Lalitpur from May 26 to 27. The leaders from
three major political parties, which are also the key players
in the ongoing peace and constitution writing processes, were
invited in the event. They held a unanimous view that the new
constitution should embrace the spirit of socialism. They concurred
that there should be Nepali-version of social democracy that
should incorporate the rich tradition of local knowledge, cultures
and civilizations being practiced since the ancient time.
Sahid Smriti Pratisthan general secretary
Khila Nath Dahal chaired the opening session that saw the attending
leaders putting forth their views in candid manner. The interesting
point is that they shunned the rancorous and cacophonous jibes
they often resort to in the public forums. To the satisfaction
of audiences, the leaders demonstrated their high level of tolerance
and listened to each other. There was sober, cordial and friendly
atmosphere that is rarely found in the other occasions when
they defend for their conflicting claims. The attending leaders,
who represented the second-generation leadership, agreed to
adopt democratic socialism with the elements of inclusiveness
and social justice in their party policies, programmes and new
constitution to build Nepal a new.
'Democratic Socialism, common ideological
Nepali Congress leader Bimaledra Nidhi said
that democratic socialism, which blends the virtues of both
capitalism and communism, had become an acceptable form of political
system locally and globally.
He said that many parties have made democratic
socialism as their guideline.
Stating that no one will halt the wind of
change, Nidhi called for linking federalism, secularism and
electoral system with democratic socialism.
Nidhi prefers terminology 'democratic socialism'
to 'social democracy', citing that all rational beings yearn
for democracy, which reflects common spirit of socio-political
"Democratic socialism needs to be defined
and interpreted as per the contexts and requirements of the
nation. It differs from country to country. For example, China
defines its system as free market socialism," he added.
The NC leader there was the need to engage
the whole society in the statute making process. He asked the
Maoists giving up their bellicose mood and desire for the possession
of arms and armies. "The Maoist obsession with violence
and confrontational politics continues to be there despite their
entry into peaceful and democratic system.
UML politburo member Pradeep Gyawali said
that there was barely ideological debate among the parties,
which are swayed by the immediate political interests and least
concerned with values and ideals having long term impacts on
There should be meaningful discussion as to
which philosophy the state should adopt and how the federal
units be carved out as the nation is passing through turbulent
transition, he noted.
Gyawali emphasized that the relevance of redistributive
social justice continued even today.
Referring to global political upheaval of
1990, he said that the collapse of socialist system in Russia
and Eastern Europe propelled some to declare that the conflict
of ideologies came to an end and the market economy emerged
as the ultimate truth.
"However, the 2008 economic crisis which
led billionaires to bankrupt reasserted the role of state and
importance of socialism," said Gyawali.
He said that the 1990 democratic change failed
to bring about socio-economic transformations. "Rather
it grew disparity among the people. Now the number of haves
and haves-not are 10 per cent and 55 per cent respectively,
which in turn gave rise to conflict."
He called for serious dialogue to churn out
a new model of socialism for Nepal so that the fruits of democracy
could be taken to the grassroots. "Socialism we will embrace
in the future must be of democratic face and Nepali character.
We must give farewell to the tendency of carrying neo-liberal
agenda in the name of democracy. Social justice should be keystone
of new political set-up."
Maoist leader Barsa Man Pun said that the
historic 12-point agreement that brought the parliamentary and
the Maoist forces together was the fusion of reformist and radical
"The key debate of the present time is:
which political system we adopt in the new constitution. Contemporary
politics presents unique scenario in which the communist forces
recognize pluralism and the democrats the social justice,"
He noted that the Maoists have adopted multi-party
democracy and the non-Maoist forces need to be ready to give
proper place to dalits, women and marginalised communities.
Stating that the new constitution should emerge as the meeting
point of two divergent ideologies, he underlined that the future
political system should imbue the local and global dimensions
of democracy that reflects essence of social justice and diversity.
Pun said that the ideological differences
among the parties obstructed the peace and statute writing processes.
The Maoist leader called for finding common ground for power
sharing, the peace and statute writing processes.
Socialist thinker Dhundi Raj Sastri pointed
out the need of focusing on the poor and rural economy for the
creation of just society.
Sastri appreciated the political opinions
of three leaders from three different parties and said, referring
to them, "If you were the top leaders of the respective
parties, the country would not have been entangled in the petty
issues and bickering."
Sastri, who is also a veteran socialist thinker,
said that change should happen on the basis of ideological power,
not at the gun-point.
The economic inequality continues to grow
even after 1990 change as the successive governments failed
to adopt the socialistic economy, he said and added that he
had been continuously pushing for the socialistic agenda but
his pleas were lost in the wilderness.
Social Democracy to overcome deficits of
FES-Nepal head Dev Raj Dahal said that social
democracy emerged to overcome the flaws of libertarian democracy
and centralized forms of governance. According to him, social
justice was the cornerstone of social democracy, which aimed
at transforming the lives of millions of Nepalese by bringing
the power of capital, state and workers in mutual adjustment.
"Justice at social, ecological and inter-generational level
is an essential component of social democracy."
Dahal offers some insights on the policy premises
of social democracy:
- Institutional implementation of freedom
and social justice in relations to the equality of social,
economic and political life.
- Establishment of a right-based welfare
- Regulated social market of economy wherein
capital and labour have equal stake
- Delivery of public goods through market
mechanism, redistributive state power and voluntary organizations
- Democratic socialization of citizens through
political parties, media and civil society.
- Reduction of negative effects of globalization
that erodes ecology and productive potentials of the poor.
"However, the ideals of social democracy
cannot be achieved for all citizens under the conditions of
social and economic inequality and abject poverty," he
He noted, "To enable democratic conditions,
the Nepalese people of various positions require suitable contextual
policies for equitable and just distributions of resources through
a thriving public sector, gainful employment and a support to
On the debate, whether the term 'democratic
socialism' or 'social democracy' provides better meaning to
the essence of the terminology, Dahal, also a political scientist,
suggests using 'social democracy.' He argued that society, which
came into existence prior to democracy, is the permanent phenomenon
compared to democracy. "So, the terminology 'social democracy'
sounds better that 'democratic socialism'."
To resolve global food, energy, finance and
ecological crises, Dahal calls for democratic accountability
in international institutions and a sound partnership of the
state, market, civil society groups and global economic and
Sahid Smriti Pratisthan general secretary
Khilanath Dahal said that the parties ignored martyrs and the
injured of democratic movements.
Dahal said that the new constitution should
able to realise the dream of martyrs.
He informed that the Pratisthan was effortful
to set up a martyr park and keep the account of all martyrs
across the country.
National Planning Commission member Professor
Amuda Shrestha presented her working paper entitled 'Women's
Participation and Accountability in Social Movement' in the
first session chaired by NC treasurer and woman leader Chitra
Lekha Yadav. NC lawmaker Pushpa Bhusal commented
Women, political movements interlinked
Professor Shrestha said that the women movement had not moved
on separate line but grew as an integral part of part of political
"The women activists who are at the frontline
of the movements since the last more than six decades consider
that the situation of the women will not improve until the overall
political system is transformed," she said.
Shrestha said that the social movements, which
aligned with the political one, provided women with voting and
She threw a historical glance at the evolutions
of the Nepalese women movements that took institutional shape
in 1947 with the formation of Nepal Women Association, an offshoot
of civil rights campaign.
Shrestha said that the Nepalese women were
facing indiscrimination in health and employment and had little
access to the key political decisions making platforms.
She presented important data showing gender
disparity as well as progress in the social, economic, judicial,
parliamentary and administrative sectors.
"The historic Constituent Assembly which
has around 32.77 per cent women representation is the big achievement
for the women compared to other areas that show little or no
representation of women," she added.
She said that the political parties were the
key instrument in the multiparty democracy as they had a say
in the executive, legislative and policy formulation, law enforcement
and decision making fields. "So, they should be naturally
accountable to the women participation and empowerment."
According to her, the Nepalese women movement,
in the beginning, was united and no ideological differences
came to crack it. But, with the passage of time there emerged
reformist and radical lines - some argued that the women could
get their rights through reformist programmes while others insisted
on the drastic measures to alleviate the conditions of women.
"With the advent of multiparty democracy
in 1990, myriad of women organizations came into existence for
the women emancipation and equality. Currently, there are four
streams of women movement - liberal, socialist, ultra and ethnic-based.
Each of them sees other as rivals. Such a tendency might weaken
the struggle for equal gender rights," she added.
Urging for continued fights to restore the
women rights, she suggested that new struggle should be carried
out under the theme of the social movement for gender equality
instead of calling it the movement for the women participation.
"The women's rights have not been fully
established as the women folks have little access to resources
and means while there are massive discriminations in the division
of labour," she noted.
She said that all the individuals as well
as organizations, which are directly or indirectly involved
in social transformation, had to bear responsibility and accountability
to the women movements.
Commenting her paper, Bhusal said that it
had linked the Nepalese women movement with socio-economic transformations.
She said that patriarchal mindset had dominated
the society. Stating that the definition of loktantra had changed
with the passage of time, she noted that it has become inclusive
and participatory, and mainstreamed the dalits and marginalized
"The paper seeks building violence free
and corruption free society," she added.
Bhusal said that there had been long
debate whether they had to give priority to producing women
leaders or focusing on women policy. "It is an illusion
that exploitations and discriminations of women end once the
female folks attain leadership status and reach decision making
places. Now, we need women friendly policy with clear commitment
and solidarity from all sides." She, however, said that
it was imperative for women to be at decision-making levels
to implement pro-women programmes and policies. She also called
for modifying the strategy to ensure women rights.
Lal Babu Yadav said that women's mere
representation in the politics could not ensure the women's
rights. "What they need is their access to resources and
means. This is because only a few numbers of them have access
to the resources.'
Sushila Mishra said that the women
history was the history of silence. "So, they should brace
to break silence." Mishra said that male members were not
alone responsible for the plight of women. 'The women have also
played their role to ingrain patriarchal cultures."
Peshal Niraula said that the paper
undermined the positive sides of history and raised its negative
"There have been many gains the women
movements achieved in the past," he said and added that
the Nepali society was highly spiritualistic but the paper only
mentioned the materialistic data to prove her logic.
"For example, when pundit Din Bandhu
Aryal delivers sermons in Yagya, a fire sacrifice religious
ceremony, hundreds of devotees gathers and donates million of
rupees for building schools and hospitals. But, this will not
be the case when Dr. Babu Ram Bhattarai, a noted intellectual-cum-politician,
holds a function for similar purpose."
He suggested that the women activists should
pay attention to education for daughters instead of staking
claim to the parental property to ensure women's rights in the
In her response, paper presenter Shretha said
that they needed to frame proper policies and implement them
effectively so that the women would enjoy rights at par with
their male counterpart.
From the chair, Chitra Lekha Yadav
said that the nation's resources and power had not been properly
mobilized for the cause of women that constitutes the half of
the total population.
She called for evaluating the achievements
of the past and analyzing the objectives of the coming women
Dwelling on the Beijing summit on women, she
said that it was a landmark meet of women that reversed the
topic from the world conference on women to the women conference
on the world.
She noted that the women joined the political
movements because of their responsibility to the society.
Yadav, who rose to prominence from the rank,
said that democracy was a journey for forward-looking changes.
"The social and political institutions
must be transparent, accountable and pluralistic," she
Defining the term 'leadership', Yadav said
that it contains three elements - protection, direction and
order but nowadays the essence of this leadership was in crisis.
Former president of Nepal Teachers Union Keshav
Prasad Bhattarai presented his working paper 'Contemporary
Nepalese Politics and Some Contexts of Democratic Socialism.'
Bhattarai said that democratic socialism evolved to ensure justice,
equality, freedom, esteem, and prosperity to all. It promises
to resolving conflict of different sorts for the permanent peace,
development and contentment for all members of the society.
It is a philosophy as well as programme, he added. "It
follows appropriate policy to balance and check between individual
and social rights."
'Democratic Socialism manages human greed'
Bhattarai said the human's unending greed
has led to the continuous destruction of natural and man-made
creations, and the world is being transformed into self-destructive
"If we fail to manage human's unbridled
avarice, the world is likely to see its doom by the end of this
century, and democratic socialism attempts to check and manage
this evil of mankind," he added.
Bhattarai offers following suggestions to
establish democratic socialism:
- By improving and changing policy and leadership,
- By creating and promoting a strong, independent,
socially and ecologically accountable and just market system,
- By chalking out policy and programmes to
ensure minimum economic and social security; and making basic
material development infrastructure and facilities avail for
- By creating mutual cooperation and balance
between environment and development,
- By maintaining political, economic and
- By maintaining governance and enhancing
- By modernizing political parties and key
governance structures, army, police, civil service, and by
putting mechanisms in place to make these institutions accountable
to the people,
- By increasing the effectiveness of press,
supreme court and civil society,
- By creating mechanisms to make international
development partner nations and organizations responsible
to the both nations, the countries of their origin and working
fields as well.
Bhattarai noted that all citizens must have
their active participation in the governance system, units of
political parties and decision-making forums.
"It is necessary for all stakeholders
to have their ownership of as well as contribute to the economic,
human and political capitals for democratic socialism,"
On the economic side of democratic socialism,
he said that the government should be involved in the production
of basic goods and services, and the management of such mechanisms
needs to be selected on the basis of collective decision of
'Weak state can't be a welfare state'
Bhattarai said that it was nothing more than
a mirage to expect from the country, which is on the wane and
losing its capacity to collect tax, to act as a welfare state,
a major characteristic democratic socialism. "To press
the state to fulfill the role of welfare state is to further
weaken and push it towards dissolution. It is more important
to make the state capable and effective than to expect from
it. It is a foolishness and hypocrisy to demand strong social
security from the weak state."
Bhattarai suggested that the government should
create opportunity for the private sector for the sufficient
production and profit so that the government can raise tax and
strengthen national coffer, thereby, meeting the provisions
of welfare state.
Commenting on Bhattarai's paper, NC leader
Dr. Prakash Saran Mahat said that there was still the relevance
of democratic socialism that stresses economic equality and
political freedom side by side. He said that Bhattarai' paper
amply highlighted the thrust of democratic socialism, which
he said, attempted to save democracy from extreme rightist and
Taking part in the floor discussion, the participants
said that it was difficult to implement the ideals of democratic
socialism when neo-liberal agenda had taken prominence place
in the programmes and policies of the parties and the government.
Some of them doubted that the NC was really carrying the principles
of democratic socialism.
In the first session of the second day of
seminar, CPN-UML leader Shankar Pokharel was expected
to deliver his views on 'Peace Process and Constitution Building:
Opportunities and Challenges' but he could not turn up because
of Nepal banda (nationwide strike). The organizer invited Dev
Raj Dahal, head of Nepal FES Office, to take the mike. Dahal
spoke on wide range of contemporary topics ranging from peace-building,
conflict resolution to the role of civil society and media during
Dahal called for peaceful resolution of conflicts
to protect hard-won democratic gains of the past, stating that
the peaceful methods foster political dialogue and compromise
among the different interest groups.
He identified three types of conflict in Nepal:
Interest-based Conflict: The persons
or groups fighting for the fulfillment of their interests primarily
seek distributional justice to end discriminations. This type
of conflict is resolved through compromise, mutually advantageous
bargain and sharing of scarce resources. Dahal said that women
and men, landless and landowners, young and old, Dalit and upper
castes, workers and employers are involved in the interest-based
conflict, which will get a way out when the 'rules of the game'
are changed for the common interest of all.
Ideology-based Conflict: The conflict
over the certain social, economic and political philosophy and
policy is known as ideology-based one. An inclusive and negotiated
constitution will provide solution to the diversity of ideological
identities of the different political groups and organizations.
Identity-based Conflict: The ethnic,
indigenous, Madhesi and other minority people's conflict is
termed as identity-based one. They want that the state would
recognize their dignity, values and ideas, which they said,
the rulers undermined in the past. In addition to this, they
have staked claim to the resources and more say in the policy
and decision making levels at the centre. This type of conflict
is highly intractable as actors in the conflict deny the legitimate
interests and position of others and maximize their own.
Dahal was of the views that post-republican
Nepal needed to enhance the people's access to resources, and
check extra-constitutional claims to power, erosion of legitimate
monopoly on the state, and ensure good governance.
Min Bishwokarma, NC central committee
member, presented his working paper entitled 'Social Democracy
and Issues of Inclusiveness' in which he underlined that democracy
and development are complementary with each other.
"The feelings of every segment of society
can't sprout in the absence of democracy. Equality has no meaning
if there were not freedom of individual or community. In similar
manner, justice has no relevance in the dearth of freedom and
equality. Therefore, for democracy to be sustainable, the politicization
of democracy alone is not enough; there must be socialization
of democracy," he said.
He said that democracy is a method that needs
to be intensively discussed among the concerned stakeholders;
important decisions should be made among from them and conducive
atmosphere should be created to implement the decisions. "This
process involving debate on method, decision making and implementation
is known as socialization of democracy."
He said that reservation system that is an
important means of achieving inclusiveness calls for formulating
'unequal policy among the inequalities' to uplift weak castes,
classes, communities and regions by enhancing their participation,
empowerment and ensuring equality respect and co-existence.
'The reservation is a right, not a mercy bestowed upon the marginalized
people. It is a means, not an end. Neither does it of permanent
He said that the welfare state should adopt
affirmative action or positive discrimination in the favor of
To implement the reservation, there should
be two approaches - for the participation and inclusiveness
in the decision-making process of the excluded or discriminated
community, top to bottom approach should be applied because
conscious persons should be sent to the decision-making platform,
However, to ensure the access of such people
to the fields of education, health, employment and administration,
bottom to top approach is necessary because these people lagged
behind in the above fields as they were deprived of opportunities
in the abovementioned areas, he said.
Bishwokarma further noted that inclusiveness
adds perfection to democracy. "This is for those who were
excluded in the past."
Commenting on his paper, many of the participants
raised question whether the aggressive policy of inclusiveness
adopted by the state would give a birth to new kind of exclusion
and discriminations in the society. Some suggested that the
paper presenter should implement his ideas in his own party
so that it would have positive impact on other areas. Some other
stressed the need to eradicate the 'untouchability' and indiscrimination
prevalent among the dalit people themselves.
Bhimsen Ghimire stressed on the behavioral
change and false traditions to bring the excluded community
into the mainstream.
Some women participants asked to specify the
women who are more exploited than other women folks are. The
women, especially from dalit and ethnic community, face the
social, cultural and economic exclusion than those hailing from
upper castes, she said. Kedar Dahal said that Bishwokarma
needed to take up the issue within his own party. Ganga Giri
drew the attention of the meeting to the rights of daily wage
earners in the new statute. Uttam Parajuli, however,
stood against the idea of reservation, citing that it would
trigger conflict among the people because it is based on the
principle of sharing the state opportunities among the certain
Replying to the queries, Bishwokarma said
that the reservation is based on the theory of necessity. "It
is like a crutch to the disabled. It is for certain time, not
From the chair, Om Kala Gautam underscored the need to
generate awareness for the promotion of democratic socialism.
"The persons must be competent enough
to get opportunity. While exercising one's own rights, others'
rights should not be infringed upon," she said.
Former Finance secretary Rameshor Khanal
presented his working paper 'Options for Nepal's Economic Policies
in the context of Global Economy.' Khanal, a stanch promoter
liberal economy, took a stock of global and national economy,
and called for pursuing correct policies to reap the benefits
from the two rising neighbours.
'Focus on agriculture, livestock'
He said that the country should identify the
goods exportable items in the international market in order
to substitute imports.
He said that the country should focus on core
agricultural and livestock products that can, in a year or so,
reduce imports. We can increase meat and milk products, fruits
and vegetables by increasing small farmers' access to credit
Nepal imported food and live animals worth
Rs. about 30 billion in FY 2008/9. This does not include informal
import of live animals and meat from India and China.
"Based on the meat consumption and domestic
production data analysis, it is estimated that Nepal has deficit
of about 15 billion worth of meat products alone," Khanal
He suggested that China where the business
of meat had gone down could be a potential market for the supply
of meat, especially of pork.
Khanal suggested for promoting One Village
One Product to produce quality goods.
The former secretary advised waiving tax or
expenditure subsidy on imported products; investing in domestic
energy generation; promoting processing of non-timber forestry
products and cash crops such as tea, cardamom, ginger and coffee
and lobbing hard to get away with unnecessary non-tariff barriers.
'Reduce dependency on remittance'
Khanal said that the country's economy was
excessively dependent upon remittance, which was eroding productivities
of the economy as young people in their highly productive age
were working outside the country.
Trade imbalance is increasing in an alarming
rate, which is mostly financed through remittance. "This
is taking Nepal to a consumption economy that must be changed,"
He compares excessive dependence on remittance
with Dutch disease that is difficult to be cured. He offers
A. Improve skill level of people wanting to
go for foreign jobs so that remittance receipts can be improved
in the short-run
B. Create better investment climate, so that young people take
to entrepreneurship within the country. (However, political
stability and right to property is necessary for this.)
C. Formulate flexible labor regime for expanding domestic industries.
Khanal, however, said that the trend of remittance
would decline in future owing to several factors.
'Promote Foreign Companies'
Khanal is the strong advocate of opening foreign
companies in Nepal to grow national economy. He opined that
if the Nepalese workers worked foreign industries at home, they
had secured jobs and other facilities here than abroad because
of domestic laws are favourable to them. Plus the government
receives extra revenues form it for development spending. "So,
there is no rational to oppose the foreign companies in the
name of defending 'swadhin arthatantra' (independent economy).'
"Moreover, if a foreign company operates
in Nepal, there will be technology transfer and Nepali people
can get middle to top level managerial jobs. The same Nepali
work force will help open domestic industries based on local
capital and other resources. This is what exactly the Chinese
did," he argued.
To attract the foreign companies, he offers
A. Set up Investment Board to provide one-stop
services to all foreign companies.
B. Guarantee full security and insure that any losses they incur
due to political risk will be compensated
C. Policy support to capital market development
D. Stop political propaganda against foreign companies.
On the foreign aid and grants, Khanal said
that all the foreign aids must come and be spent through government
agencies. He said that some aids had been used to fuel social
discontent and unnecessary human rights. "Foreign aid must
focus on national priorities, and building human and physical
Taking part in the discussion of Khanal's
paper, many speakers underlined the need to promote exports,
give incentives to domestic companies, and check the flow of
young workforce from going abroad and rampant corruption that
has plagues economy, politics and other sectors. Bijay KC expressed
his curiosity as to how to preserve 'independent economy' in
the era of globalization. Kedar Dahal said that Nepal was incurring
heavy trade deficit as the country failed to promote exporting
companies. Dipak Regmi pointed out that foreign aid had not
been properly utilized and there were irregularities in the
disbursement of the grants and aids. Bhimsen Ghimire said that
the government sold the public enterprises at the throwaway
prices in 1990s. "If it had formulated correct policy to
run them, they would not have borne losses." Some other
participants resented the idea of letting neo-rich people to
declare their huge property and making it legal. "This
is a trick to make black money into white." One speaker
insisted that country's economic policy should be stable and
must not be affected by the political change.
In his response, Khanal noted that foreign
companies were interested to invest in hydropower but locals
created obstruction to them. Nepal has comparative advantage
in hydropower, tourism and forestry. He said that there would
not be nationality in the foreign capital that comes for profit
making. If we allow the domestic companies to do monopoly, they
will not be sustainable. On corruption, Khanal said that it
was pervasive in the upper echelon of leadership. "If the
top leadership becomes clean, it will be easily controlled."
In his concluding remarks, programme coordinator
Khila Nath Dahal said that the political corruption was the
biggest threat to the nation. "There is need to have positive
attitude and conducts to root out corruption."